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Abstracts of published papers

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ROJKA, Ľ.: Variácie morálnej zodpovednosti. In: Studia Theologica, vol. 18, 2016, no. 2, p. 135−154. ISSN 1212-8570

ROJKA, Ľ.: Swinburne's Modal Argument for Mind / Body dualism. In: Studia Neoaristotelica, 2016.

ROJKA, Ľ. - HALAMOVA, J.: Divine Justice and the Problem of Evil. In: Gregorianum, 2016, no. 3, p. - .

ROJKA, Ľ.: La causa prima del tempo e dell’universo: l’argomento di Giovanni Filopono oggi. In: CARUANA, L. (ed.): L’inizio e la fine dell’Universo : Orientamenti scientifici, filosofici, e teologici. Roma : G&B Press, 2016, p. 41−62. ISBN: 978-88-7839-335-6

ROJKA, Ľ.: Sebapotvrdenie a sebakritickosť človeka. In: Studia Aloisiana, vol. 7, 2016, no. 1, p. 21-36. ISSN 1338-0508


ROJKA, Ľ.: The Christian Concept of the Soul and Experiences of the Clinical Death. In: Radost a nadej, 1, 2015, p. 3-14. ISSN 1335-3543

ROJKA, Ľ.: Free Agency and Scientific Methods (Slobodné konanie a vedecké metódy skúmania). In: Studia Aloisiana, vol. 6, 2015, no. 3, s. 5-16. ISSN 1338-0508

ROJKA, Ľ.: Changes in Understanding of Moral Responsibility (Zmeny v chápaní morálnej zodpovednosti človeka). In: Viera a život, vol. 25, 2015, no. 6, p. 78-88.


ROJKA, Ľ.: Bernard Lonergan and the Reality of Human Freedom. In: Ostium, no. 2 (2014). ISSN 1336-6556

ROJKA, Ľ.: Bernard Lonergan and Contemporary Neurosciences. Viera a Život, 2014, no. 3, p. 57-64.

ROJKA, Ľ. - HALAMOVA, J.: Why God Created the World So Bad. In: Sudia Aloisiana, no. 1, 2014, p. 17-29.

ROJKA, Ľ.: Príčinný vplyv slobodnej vôle na správanie dualisticky chápaného človeka. In: D. Heller, & I. Sobotková (Eds.), Psychologické dny 2014: Fenomén svobody v kontextu psychologie a filosofie. Sborník z konference: 32. Psychologické dny, 11. - 13. září 2014, Olomouc. Praha: Českomoravská psychologická společnost. ISBN 978-80-260-9265-0 [online], 978-80-260-9266-7  [CD-ROM]

ROJKA, Ľ.: Jesuit Pedagogy, Philosophy, and Trnava University. (Jezuitská pedagogika, filozofia a Trnavská univerzita v Trnave). In: Jezuitské princípy utvárajúce univerzitné vzdelávanie. Zborník vedeckých prác. Ed: M. Lichner, K. Grendová. Vydala Trnavská univerzita, 2014, p. 97–109. ISBN 978-80-8082-802-8.


ROJKA, Ľ. - HALAMOVA, J.: The Complexity of the Physical and Moral Evil: Philosophical and Psychological elements of the Ethical and Religious education. (Komplexnosť otázky fyzického a morálneho zla: Filozofické a psychologické prvky etickej i náboženskej výchovy.) In: Psychological and Philosophical Aspects of Morality in Education. Collection of Papers from the Conference. Banská Bystrica, 2013, p. 53-65. (Dobro a zlo, alebo o morálke. Psychologické a filozofické aspekty morálky v edukácii. Zborník príspevkov zo sympózia. Zostavil Ján Kaliský, Banská Bystrica, 2013, p. 53-65.)
Abstract: One of the discussed issues in philosophy is whether possible objective ethical principles could exist without religion. If they exist, the question is whether they must have a deeper foundation in God in order to be objective. There is a difference if the ethical principles are supported by the command of God   (religion) and if they are not. One of the crucial (Christian) problems is the problem of evil. It deals with the existence of physical and psychological suffering,  and the question is whether the existence of evil contradicts to the thesis that the world was created  by an omnipotent, omniscient, and  perfectly   good God . If there is a contradiction, then  the commandments of God  do not  have   a deeper   justification and people,   left alone,  live  in the midst of  an  evil   and   cruel   world .  Deeper   philosophical   analyses of   the problem of evil  conclude  that the   existence   of evil   does not   contradict the   theistic   conception   of the world . On the contrary, evil  in the world   plays an important role   in the ethical   and   moral development   of humans ,  as confirmed by  the most recent research in  psychology . D ifficult situations   may be   thanks to   empathy   and   support   from   loved ones   and   positive interpretation of the events,   transformed into a post-traumatic growth which consists in a discovery of new opportunities, development of new skills, courage, self-confidence, a deeper perception of the meaning of life, more valuable and more honest interpersonal relationships, and closer relationship with God.

ROJKA, Ľ.: Divine Knowledge and Foreknowledge in the Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas.  (Božie poznanie a predpoznanie vo filozofii Tomáša Akvinského.) (In: Ostium, no. 2, 2013, Internet Journal)
Abstract: C. Hughes has raised some interesting questions regarding the explanation of divine foreknowledge in the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas. The difficulties in understanding Aquinas originate not so much in his texts, but rather in a search for a deeper understanding of his position in the context of contemporary philosophy. Explanation of God’s knowledge and foreknowledge leads to an evaluation of the meaning of divine eternity and to a consideration of different kinds of necessities (absolute, ex suppositione) assigned to God’s omniscience. The meaning of different necessities requires a better articulation in the context of recent metaphysics, because any obscurity depreciates Thomistic position in comparison with other theistic accounts.


ROJKA, Ľ.: God and the Creation out of Nothing: The Cosmological Argument. (Boh a vznik sveta z ničoho: Náčrt obhajoby časového kozmologického argumentu pre Božie jestvovanie.) Studia Neoarstotelica, roč. 9, 2012, č. 3.

ROJKA, Ľ.: Why the Creation of God needs Evil. (Prečo Božie stvorenie potrebuje zlo) In: SPIŠIAKOVÁ, M.: Zlo v Božom stvorení : Riešenie problému zla v analytickej filozofii náboženstva. Warszawa : Rhetos, 2012, s. 7-20.

Abstract: A short synthesis of several proposed solutions of the problem of evil. Some of them are not compatible with others, and some are not acceptable. A few crucial ideas, which each solution needs to take into consideration, are explained.

ROJKA, Ľ.: Difficulties with the Concept of a Timeless Creator. (Ťažkosti s pojmom bezčasového stvoriteľa). In: Studia Aloisiana, roč. 3, 2012, č. 2, s. 51-65.

Abstract: There are two basic conceptions of God discussed in the most recent philosophical  theology.  (1) The  classical  conception  of  a timeless  God  is  defended by authors like E. Stump and P. Helm. (2) R. Swinburne is one of the most  famous  defenders  of  the  divine  temporality. Even  though  there are  several objections to the arguments by  R.  Swinburne (which are well explored in the revised book by P. Helm), the critique of the timelessness by W. Craig shows that the timeless conception does not have so much explanatory power as the temporal conception. Explanation of  a timeless divine freedom, knowledge of the temporal facts, and causality is very problematic. Therefore the temporal concept of God seems more acceptable.


ROJKA, Ľ.: God the Creator and the Quantum Cosmology of Stephen Hawking. (Boh Stvoriteľ a kvantová kozmológia Stephena Hawkinga). In: Radosť a nádej, roč. 14, 2011, č. 2, s. 42-55.
Abstract: The quantum cosmology of S. Hawking, as it is presented in his popular books, is twinned with the alleged uselessness of the Creator hypothesis. A short analysis of his books A Brief History of Time and The Grand Design shows that the philosophical problems with his conception of the imaginary time, smooth beginning of the universe, and his realistic interpretation of the wave function of the universe persist through all his popular work. His model–dependent realism as it is introduced in his latest book is philosophically implausible. Hawking conception of the universe by no means excludes or makes needless a Creator. Even a deeper explanation of Q. Smith, who made some adjustments to Hawking’s theory, involves philosophical difficulties which a theistic hypothesis avoids all together.

ROJKA, Ľ.: God the Creator in the Grand Design of the Universe by Stephen Hawking. (Boh stvoriteľ v náčrte veľkolepého dizajnu vesmíru od Stephena Hawkinga.) In: Viera a život, roč. 21, 2011, č. 4, s. 23-31.

ROJKA, Ľ.: A  Priori  Non-Logical  Necessity  of  the  Existence  of  God. (Apriórna nie logická nutnosť Božieho jestvovania). In: Studia Aloisiana, roč. 2, 2011, č. 3, s. 15-20.
Abstract: There are several  a priori principles implied in the traditional theistic arguments for the existence of God, such as the principle of causality or the principle of the impossibility  of  the  infinite regress.  In  addition, for the  a posteriori arguments, in  order  to  succeed,  some  a  priori  knowledge  of  God  is  necessary.  A  priori knowledge can be conceptual (analytic) or metaphysical (synthetic). One of the a priori metaphysical constituents of the concept of God is the necessity of the existence of God. Moreland and Craig explain what the metaphysical necessity means  and  Rasmussen  illustrates  the  way  from  the  contingent  reality  to  the necessary  being.  A  deeper  analysis  proves  their  position  to  be  reasonable  and provides good answers to the raised objections. One of the goals of the article is to  clarify  the  a  priori  and  a  posteriori  components  of  our  knowledge  of  God, and this clarification shows that metaphysical necessity is not identical with the logical necessity. Only the former one should be ascribed to God.

ROJKA, Ľ.: The Argument from the Unknowability of the Will of God in the Explanation of the Problem of Evil. (Argument neznalosti Božej vôle vo vysvetľovaní problému zla.) In: KIŠS, Igor a kolektív (eds.): Božia prozreteľnosť a zlo vo svete. (Problém teodícey). Zborník príspevkov z vedeckého medzinárodného ekumenického sympózia. Bratislava, 2011, s. 183–189.
Abstract in Slovak: Referát vychádza z problému zla v analytickej filozofickej tradícii a poukazuje na vysvetlenia existencie niektorých druhov zla, kedy sa dôvodí obmedzenosťou ľudského poznania Božích úmyslov. Veriaci predpokladá, že Boh má svoje dôvody. Pre neveriaceho božie dôvody neexistujú a opiera sa skôr o vedecké vysvetlenie kauzálnych príčin a dôsledkov. Ateistická kritika poukazuje na obmedzenia teistickej teórie, ktorá cez analógiu ponúka len čiastočné a neštandardné vysvetlenie pojmu Boha a jeho vzťahu k svetu. Ide však o kompletnejšie a zmysluplnejšie vysvetlenie sveta a zla než má k dispozícii ateista, pretože popri vedeckom vysvetlení podáva aj osobné vysvetlenie, ktoré (aj keď len čiastočne, neštandardne a s „problémom“) vysvetlí, čo veda vysvetliť nemôže. Preto sa zdá byť rozumné uprednostniť práve teistické vysvetlenie.


ROJKA, Ľ.:  Quentin Smith and his defense of Atheism. (Quentin Smith a jeho obhajoba ateizmu.) In: Acta Facultatis Theologicae Universitatis Comenianae Bratislaviensis, Bratislava, roč. VII, 2010, č. 2, s. 242–264. ISSN 1335-8081

ROJKA, Ľ.: The Thomism of Bernard Lonergan. (Tomizmus Bernarda Lonergana SJ.) In : Studia Aloisiana, roč. 1, 2010, č. 1, s. 57-69, ISSN 1338-0508


ROJKA, Ľ.: Personal Integrity and B. Lonergan’s General Transcendent Knowledge. Gregorianum, vol. 90, 2009, no. 2, s. 317–334.


ROJKA, Ľ.: Human Authenticity and the Question of God in the Philosophy of Bernard Lonergan. In: Forum Philosophicum, vol. 13, 2008, no. 1, s. 31–49.


ROJKA, Ľ.: Are we Really without an Immaterial Soul? (Že by sme ozaj boli bez netelesnej duše?) 1. časť In: Viera a Život, 2007, č. 1, s. 60–66. ROJKA, Ľ.: Ako možno zdôvodniť existenciu netelesnej duše? 2. časť. In: Viera a Život, 2007, č. 2, s. 82–88.

ROJKA, Ľ.: Jesuit Style of Teaching Philosophy. (Jezuitský spôsob vyučovania filozofie.) In: Studia Aloisiana 2006. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 2007, s. 199–210. ISBN 978–80–7141–559–6

ROJKA, Ľ.: Ethics in the Context of the Philosophy of Bernard Lonergan. (Etika v kontexte filozofie Bernarda Lonergana SJ.) In: Studia Aloisiana 2006.Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 2007, s. 211–220. ISBN 978-80-7141-559-6

ROJKA, Ľ.: Human Ignorance and the Problem of Evil. (Ľudská nevedomosť a problém zla.) In: Studia Aloisiana 2006. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 2007, s. 177–183. ISBN 978–80–7141–559–6

ROJKA, Ľ.: Emergence and the World-Explanation of Bernard Lonergan. In: Studia Aloisiana 2006. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 2007, s. 185–197. ISBN 978–80–7141–559–6

ROJKA, Ľ.: Scientific and other Explanations. (Vedecké a iné vysvetlenia.) In: ROJKA, Ľ. (ed.): Veda a náboženstvo. Zborník príspevkov na XI. konferencii Združenia učiteľov filozofie na teologických fakultách ČR a SR. Bratislava 27.–29. augusta 2007. Bratislava : TFTU, 2007.


ROJKA, Ľ.: Ratio studiorum a vyučovanie filozofie na jezuitských inštitúciách. In: Jezuitské školstvo včera a dnes. Ed. L. Csontos. Bratislava, 2006, s. 207–214. ISBN 80–7141–545–6

ROJKA, Ľ.: Antropologické základy [význam] etiky u Bernarda Lonergana. In: Viera a Život, 2006, č. 1, s. 76–82.

ROJKA, Ľ.: Kozmologický argument Richarda Swinburna. In: Studia Aloisiana 2005. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 2006, s. 255-264. ISBN 80–7141–517–0


ROJKA, Ľ: Eternity of God in the Bible. In: Studia Aloisiana. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 2002, s. 199–212. ISBN 80–7141–404–2
Abstract: Yahweh of the Bible is described in terms of human bodily and spiritual properties, and transcendental characteristics. The transcendental attributes, such as unknowability (God is unimaginable and unconceivable) and limitlessness, suggest interpretation of Yahweh as timeless. Some expressions, like «I am» of St. John's gospel, require timelessness. In this case, bodily and spiritual descriptions are to be taken as metaphors, which describe some partial characteristics of God. Verses about unchangeableness of his mind and foreknowledge strongly suggest perceiving God as timeless, especially if they are understood in the absolute sense. The absolute attributes, however, can be understood in a weaker sense or taken as metaphors for God's majesty, and then God is really known in terms of human spiritual characteristics. Biblical texts seem to allow both interpretations. This is because the Bible in general does not seem to give a sufficient statement about the nature of «time», «eternity» and their relation to God for a Christian philosophical-theological view. The reason seems to be the primary interest of biblical writers, which is in moral issues and not in philosophic wondering about the nature of God and time. Interpretation of Biblical eternity depends much on several philosophical considerations. A defender of the everlastingness must explain how and why God is described as transcendent, infinite and unknowable and still temporal. The task of a defender of the timelessness is more difficult. He has to explain how and why the Bible uses temporal expressions for a timeless God, and explain several philosophical presuppositions in order to make of the Biblical texts valid arguments for the timelessness. In order to show that the arguments against timelessness are not valid and in order to turn Biblical narratives into arguments for timelessness, one has to clarify at least these philosophical presuppositions: (1) How a timeless being can co-exist with temporal creature, (2) how can act in time, and (3) timelessly know events which are for us in future. Biblical arguments can be further strengthened showing that time is only an abstract entity and takes part in human way of knowing. There are other philosophical tasks, which have to be considered, namely, that God does not change from being timeless to temporal, a possible development of the key meanings in the Bible, and different definitions of time.

ROJKA, Ľ: Eternity of God in St. Thomas Aquinas. In: Studia Aloisiana. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 2002, s. 213-223. ISBN 80–7141–404–2
Abstract: The notion of eternity in St. Thomas derives from an understanding of the relation between time and motion, and from understanding immovability of a simple being. A simple being is timeless and it is totum simul. This being is not a temporal instant. There is non-temporal duration, activity and life in his simple being. Eternity primarily belongs to God, since he is the most immutable. Not only that, but God is his own eternity, because his existence is identical with his essence. Identification of a simple being with God was based on the immovability of God. The immovability follows from the demonstrations that God is the first act, absolutely simple and infinite in all perfections. Eternity, according to Aquinas, is also entailed by his necessity. Thus the first and third ways seem to be the most relevant to the affirmation of eternity. The second and the fourth ways demonstrate the perfection of the first unmoved mover, which also can lead to the affirmation of his eternity. The notion of life, which is usually related to movement is also applicable to God, since he is the first cause of life, and, as the most perfect being, he is identical with all his perfections; consequently, he is life.

ROJKA, Ľ: Edmund Husserl´s Analysis of Time-Consciousness. In: Studia Aliosiana. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 2002, s. 225-237. ISBN 80–7141–404–2


ROJKA, Ľ.: Collapse of the Moral World-View. In: Studia Aloisiana. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 2001, s. 241-248. ISBN 80–7141–374–7

ROJKA, Ľ.: Emergence. In: Studia Aloisiana. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 2001, s. 249–261. ISBN 80–7141–374–7
Abstract: Lonergan’s overall explanation of nonsystematic processes sometimes seems to be not clear and sometimes even contradictory to his generic account of emergent probability, because his empirical explanation does not clearly distinguish emergent systems from just nonlinear systems. However, new developments in science provide material for clarification of Lonergan’s explanation of nonsystematic processes and basically confirm his generic and explanatory account of emergent probability. In considerations of probability, one has to be aware that there is something (Lonergan’s „coincidental manifold") in the matters of fact that escapes human intelligence. In nonsystematic processes, we have to distinguish two aspects in coincidental manifold. On the one hand, there is a negative factual element, which is responsible for deviation of data from ideal statistical predictions. On the other hand, coincidental manifolds have potentiality for new levels of development. Systematic observations and classifications of similar cases can sometimes provide information for the statistical predictions of the emergence of new schemes of recurrence. A future new intelligibility (scheme of recurrence) is somehow potentially present in these „matters of fact". The use of statistics in the first case is clearly „a cloak of human ignorance". With a constant flow of „fresh" information and more efficient computers, we can get very close to precise predictions of linear and nonlinear occurrences of a systematic process. In the second case, however, the emergence of new properties does not occur according to a specific classical law or intelligibility. If a new scheme is going to emerge, probability calculus may provide some predictions based on the theory of strange attractors and observations of similar situations. Here statistics is not just a cloak of human ignorance but a cloak of a real gap in classical intelligibility. If we remove the probability, which is indeed only a cloak of human ignorance and resides in the relation of our knowledge to the concrete, there remains probability of emergence. This probability is real in the sense that the change of probabilities (from the probability of emergence to probability of survival) does not occur necessarily (causally or deterministically) or arbitrarily, and that there are really new properties (intelligibility) emerging in this process, which cannot be explained in terms of the old properties. The concrete linear and nonlinear (systematic) processes are deterministic in the sense that each present state is (causally) explained by the previous state.

ROJKA, Ľ – STARÍČEK, I.: Filozofia Bernarda Lonergana. In: Studia Aloisiana. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 2001, s. 263–272. ISBN 80–7141–374–7


ROJKA, Ľ.: The Teleological Argument: Hume´s Critique and some Contemporary Reappraisals. In: Studia Aloisiana. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 1999, s. 191–196. ISBN

ROJKA, Ľ: Eternity of God. In: Studia Aloisiana. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 1999, s. 197–203. ISBN 80–7141–270–8

ROJKA, Ľ.: Timeless omniscience and human free will. In: Studia Aloisiana. Bratislava : Dobrá kniha, 1999, s. 205-211. ISBN 80–7141–270–8

ROJKA, Ľ: Analogy, Schematism and the Existence of God. In: ACTA : Theologica Olomucensia, 1, 1999, č.1, s. 1–5, Olomouc.

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